An actuator is an electrochemical driving motor on the heating circuit distributors, as a 24V or 230 V model, which is used to open and close the heating circuits motor-driven via the room control.


Air-Water Heat Pump

A heat pump which obtains the source energy from the ambient air is called air-water heat pump.



An aquifer (or water-bearing stratum) is a body of rock with hollows that is suitable to pipe ground water. 



A blender is an infinitely adjustable motor driven valve to distribute the incoming mass flow into two outgoing mass flows in a tube system.


Brine / Water Heat Pump

A brine / water heat pump is a heat pump which obtains source energy from probe or flat plate collectors and which is filled with a brine and/or water / glycol mixture.   



The buffer is a technical device to temporarily accumulate heat or cooling energy with the aim of harmonizing production and consumption (also see SunBox).


Capillary Tube

In this case, the capillary tube describes the two different tube sizes (3.4 and 4.5 mm) of the connecting tubes between the oval distribution pipes of the capillary tube mats.


Capillary Tube Mats

Capillary tube mats, also called capillary mats, are plastic heat exchangers consisting of 2 manifolds (oval distribution pipe 20 x 1.9 mm) and the connecting capillary tubes running parallel. The capillary tube spacing is 10 mm for the SF-mat and 20 mm for the MI-mat. Width (up to 1,120 mm) and length (up to 8,000 mm) of a capillary tube mat (capillary mat) are produced order-related and are part of the capillary tube system of cooling ceilings and surface heatings.


Capillary Tube System

The capillary tube system, also called capillary system, describes complete surface heating and cooling systems with capillary tube mats as emitting surfaces. It is used as a capillary tube ceiling heating and capillary tube cooling ceiling or capillary tube underfloor heating and capillary tube wall heating.


Ceiling Heating

The radiant ceiling heating is a type of surface heating for buildings. It can be carried out in plaster, behind dry wall or as a suspended ceiling. The ceiling heating can be used as a ceiling cooling or cooling ceiling. The capillary tube ceiling heating is a special type of ceiling heating and / or cooling ceiling, allowing for a particularly flat assembly and a particularly high power transmission.


Circulation Pump

A circulation pump in a heating plant is a centrifugal pump, which transports the warmed heat transfer medium (mostly water) to the capillary mats and simultaneously it returns the cooled water from there, in order to warm it up again in the heating.



Climadesign describes the development, planning and engineering implementation of solutions for climate control within buildings, heating and cooling as well as solutions regarding heat storage, accumulation and dissipation of heating and cooling energy. Geo-Climadesign is Climadesign under consideration of environmental engineering.


Concrete Core Activation

Concrete core activation (also: thermal construction element activation) is an air conditioning term describing systems that use building structures for the temperature regulation via heat or cooling input by means of surface systems. These systems are used for the exclusive or additional heating or cooling of rooms. 


Construction Elements

Construction elements are individual parts, elements or components, which are used to assemble a construction. A construction element is a geometrically coherent body which is characterized by a consistent design and construction.



Besides the competing methods of heat conduction and heat radiation, convection is also a heat transfer mechanism of thermal energy from one place to another. Convection is always connected to the transport of particles that carry thermal energy. Consequently, convection cannot be observed in non-permeable solid bodies or in vacuum.


Cooling Ceiling

The cooling ceiling belongs to the group of surface heating / cooling systems. A room ceiling, whose temperature is brought to and kept below ambient air temperature by means of embedded aquiferous capillary mats, is referred to as cooling ceiling.


Cooling Load

The sum of all heat inputs by radiation, transmittance or convection in a room, which need to be balanced by cooling, is called cooling load.


Cooling Load Calculation

The cooling load calculation is a calculation method to determine the cooling load of a room or several rooms respectively.



The performance number ε, also known by its English term Coefficient of Performance COP, is the relation between the useable heating or cooling capacity and the applied capacity of the heat pump systems.


Deep Geothermics

Deep geothermics is the possible use of geothermal energy starting at a depth of 400 m.


Degree Celsius

Degree Celsius is a unit for measuring temperature.


Design Temperature

Design temperatures are the maximum or minimum outside or inside temperatures and / or system temperatures of a heating or cooling system, e. g. of a capillary tube heating or capillary tube cooling ceiling, which are used to calculate the entire system.



The dew-point or dew-point temperature describes the temperature at which a balance between condensed and evaporated water is reached upon an object (at existing humidity), in other words the condensation has just started.


Dew-Point Control

Dew-point control is the control of surface cooling systems, mostly cooling ceilings considering that values below dew-point are excluded. Also see GEO1



A distributor, or to be more specific a heating circuit distributor, is a component of an underfloor, wall or ceiling heating or cooling and is required for heat dissipation. The heating circuits (mat fields) of an underfloor, wall or ceiling heating or cooling are connected to the heating circuit distributor with a flow and a return line by means of threaded clamps.


Expansion Tank

An expansion tank is a technical device for pressure maintenance in hydraulic systems with time varying temperatures which adjust the occurring volume changes between the minimum and the maximum temperature.


Flat Plate Collector

See geothermal collector


Floor construction

The floor construction of a building is the construction element that functions as an accessible area on top of a load bearing layer or a horizontal construction element such as a base plate or floor ceiling. The various layers, their thickness as well as the connection between each other and the mechanical and thermodynamic characteristics are important for the calculation of the heat requirement and the load capacity. Systems for surface heatings have an influence on the floor construction. By using capillary tube mats, a flat floor construction becomes possible.


Flow Temperature

The flow temperature is the temperature of the heat-transferring medium (e.g. water) which is fed into the heating / cooling system. For so-called low-temperature systems it describes the flow temperature of the heating. The lowest flow temperature is enabled by systems with the highest possible exchanger surface per m². Currently, these are capillary tube systems and/or capillary tube mats. The contrary applies for flow temperatures for cooling with aquiferous systems. In this case the capillary tube cooling has the highest flow temperatures for the respective specific power.


Free Cooling

Free cooling is a way of cooling buildings by means of freely available cooling energy from sources such as: geothermal probes, ground water, open water or other natural cooling sources. For free cooling a dispense system for cooling energy is required which gets along with a temperature level above the source temperature. Free cooling plants with capillary tube systems show the highest possible cooling capacity. Free cooling is also called natural cooling.



GEO 1 is a complex control system which controls the optimal heating / cooling temperature for surface heating and cooling systems via a central controller as well as up to 264 connected room controllers. Therefore, temperature and relative humidity are measured permanently in all connecting rooms and a cooling below dew point at the cooling surfaces is excluded. Modern design and an easy handling are complemented by the possibility to remotely control each room easily via an internet connection.



Geoclimadesign describes the development, planning and engineering implementation of solutions for climate control within buildings, heating and cooling as well as solutions regarding heat storage, accumulation and dissipation of heating and cooling energy under consideration of environmental engineering.



Geology is the science of the composition, consistency and the structure of the earth, its physical characteristics and its history of development as well as the processes that have formed it and are still forming it today.



Geonics is the combination of geosciences and technology, thus an interdisciplinary special field in which scientist, in particular geoscientists, work together with representatives of other disciplines such as engineers, architects, designers or social scientists. The goal of geonics is to gain knowledge from interrelations in nature and the innovative implementation of this knowledge in processes and products of technology and society.


Geothermal Collector

A geothermal collector is a heat transmitter, thus an accumulator of heating or cooling energy which is installed horizontally into the ground, consisting of capillary tube mats. It can also be constructed as a geothermal basket or spiral collector.


Geothermal Energy

The geothermal energy is the heat stored in the upper, accessible part of the lithosphere. It comprises the energy stored in the ground, as far as it can be withdrawn and used, und belongs to the renewable energies. Due to the temperature level the geothermal energy can also be used as geothermal cooling for cooling ceilings and / or heating and cooling systems.


Geothermal Probe

A geothermal probe is a tube bundle, which is installed into the ground (usually up to a depth of 99 m) by means of a drilling process. With its help the geothermal heat from the deeper ground is gained, which is used for heating with heat pumps or free cooling.


Geothermal Probe System

A construction consisting of two or more geothermal probes, that are adjusted simultaneously and hydraulically, is called geothermal probe system. The minimum distance between the probes should not go below 7 m.


Grouting Component

In this case the grouting component describes a cementitious, fibre-reinforced building material, which is mixed according to a given mixing ratio with water, and shed self-levelling around and on the capillary mats.



The degree of energy transmittance (called g-value) is the measuring unit for the permeability of transparent construction elements for energy transportation. The g-value as the total degree of energy transmittance is the sum of the direct transmittance as well as the inward heat emission by radiation or convection.


Heating Days

Heating days are the number of statistically determined days of the year on which a space heating is required.


Heat Exchanger

The heat exchanger is a device that transfers thermal energy from one material flow onto another without both flows being connected.


Heat Insulation

Heat insulation is supposed to reduce the transmission of thermal energy. For heat technology plants the avoidance of losses through heat emission and / or radiation is the central goal and for refrigerating plants the entry of ambient heat should be reduced.


Heat Pump

A heat pump is a machine that, by using technical work, absorbs thermal energy from a reservoir with a low temperature (usually this is the ambience). Consequently, this energy is transferred, together with the operating power, as useful heat or cooling energy onto a system to be heated or cooled with a higher temperature (e.g. room heating) or a lower temperature (e.g. room cooling).


Heat Radiation

Heat radiation or thermal radiation is an electromagnetic radiation which transfers thermal energy from one place to another.


Heat Requirement

The heat requirement of a building or a room is the sum of transmittance losses and air-conditioning losses which must be balanced by the heating system.


Heat Requirement Calculation

The heat requirement calculation determines the heat requirement for each room and / or for the entire building. It is the basis for the dimensioning of the heat generation.


Heat Transmission

The heat transfer from a fluid through a wall onto another fluid is called heat transmission.


Hot Water Tank

A hot water tank is a tank that stores hot service water (up to 95 °C) with minimum temperature losses and which is charged by one or more heat generators.



A humidistat is a measuring head for the installation into buildings and structures in order to determine the relative humidity.


Hydraulic Alignment

At the hydraulic alignment specific flow rates are assigned to the mat circles of capillary tube mats or other tube systems.



Hydraulics is the science of the flow behaviour of liquids. Flow velocity and pressure losses play a crucial role in order to determine the tube dimensions and pump sizes in heating systems.


Hydraulic Separation

Hydraulic separation is the separation of different liquid carrying systems.


Hydraulic Switch

A hydraulic switch is installed into heating / cooling system, in order to hydraulically decouple the heating / cooling producer circuit and the emission circuit. The pressure loss in both circuits is not constant.


Hydroelectric Power Plant

A hydroelectric power plant is a power plant that transforms the mechanical energy of the water into electricity.


Injection Well

A return well within a closed well system, which is used to feed the firstly pumped water to the aquifer, is called injection well.


Inside Temperature Regulation

The term inside temperature regulation is used for control systems which use the inside temperature of a room as the reference variable. The temperature sensing is achieved by an inside temperature measuring head.  



The joule (pronounced /dʒuːl/), named after James Prescott Joule, is the derived unit of energy in the International System of Units. The joule is used for all types of thermal energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy. 1 Joule = 1 Ws



The kelvin (symbol: K) is the measuring unit for the thermodynamic temperature in the International System of Units (SI) as well as a legal temperature unit. It is also used to describe temperature differences.


Lead Plan

The lead plan is used to plan the piping between the distribution branch point and the connection to the mat field. Thereby, the distribution point as well as the tube dimensions and the installation routes are determined.


Loam Wall Heating

A loam wall heating is a wall heating embedded in loam rendering.



The manometer is a measurement device to determine the pressure within a system.


Mat Field

One or more capillary mats that form a hydraulic cycle are called mat field.


Mat Planning

The mat planning and/or capillary tube mat planning comprises the exact allocation of the surfaces in floor, wall and ceiling with precisely defined mat types, mat lengths and mat widths as well as their assignment to each other. In the mat planning, the connecting points of the inlet pipes are marked as well as the labelling of all mats, rooms and levels.


Natural cooling

see free cooling


Outside Temperature Regulation

Control systems which use the outside air temperature as a reference variable are called outside temperature regulation. The temperature sensing is usually achieved by an outside temperature measuring head. 


Oval distribution pipe

The oval distribution pipe is the part of the capillary mat where all outgoing and incoming capillaries are welded to.



Photovoltaics describes the direct transformation of solar energy into electrical energy by means of solar cells.



Polypropylene random copolymer (PPR) is the material which all capillary tube mats as well as all tubes and connecting elements are made of.


Radiant Heat

Heat radiation is a mechanism to transfer heat from thermal energy from one area to another. In contrast to other heat transfer mechanisms, heat convection and heat conduction, radiant heat also occurs in vacuum, because only the propagation of electromagnetic waves need be possible.


Refrigerating Machine

A refrigerating machine is a device that is used to generate cooling energy. A refrigerating machine realizes a thermodynamic cycle, in which heat is absorbed below the ambient temperature and emitted at higher temperatures.


Remote Data Transmission

The transmission of data between computers by a medium, using an additional protocol via the telephone network, is called remote data transmission (German abbreviation: DFÜ). 


Room controller

Room controllers are technical devices to measure and adjust the room temperature (also see GEO1).


Screw Connection

A screw connection is used to quickly and safely connect pipes or tubes with a screw thread.


Separation System

A separation system is an assembly group of heat exchangers, circulation pump and various fittings for the hydraulic separation with heat transfer of the capillary system from existing heating / cooling systems.


Service Description

In this case the service description gives a detailed description of all assembly groups of the system in order to precisely state the content and scope of the delivery and/or the scope and content of the service provided.


Silent Cooling

Silent cooling is a term used for ceiling cooling because the cooling capacity is achieved without any noise or draught in the room. The term was created in comparison to conventional air-conditioning.


Socket Welding

The socket welding is a manual welding process for the assembly of capillary systems in which the socket and the tube are heated simultaneously by means of a thermally heated welding plate and they are subsequently brought together in such a way that a molecular composition is created.


Solar Collector

A solar collector is a device to collect energy contained within sunlight. For solar thermal collectors this is heat, for photovoltaic collectors it is power and for PVT or hybrid collectors there are both forms of energy.


Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy generated by the sun through nuclear fusion, which reaches the earth partly as electromagnetic radiation.


Solar Gain

Solar gain is the total solar energy that is brought into a room via windows or walls.


Suction Well

A pumping well within a closed well system, which is used to transport water from an aquifer to the heat exchanger, is called suction well.



The sunbag is a solar thermal module to be retroactively or industrially applied to the back side of any PV module. By means of the sunbag, the PV absorber turns into a PVT and/or hybrid collector without a material compound being necessary. The aim is the double use of roof or solar surfaces for simultaneous power and heat generation for heating and service water heating. The sunbag is suitable for connection to a water-based storage unit for solar energy or a sunbox. The completion of a PV absorber by a sunbag enables the increase in performance of the PV module through its back-sided cooling.



The sunbox is an accumulator, which is used to read in and out thermal gains from solar, geothermal exhaust heat or other low temperature sources between 26°C and 80°C. The storage capacity of the sunbox is 2.5 times higher than the capacity of a water-based solar accumulator. A sunbox contains 10 storage cassettes. The sunbox is structured modularly and it is modularly extendable.


Sunshine Duration

The average yearly sunshine duration in Germany lies between 1,300 and 1,900 hours depending on the place. The average value is 1,550 hours of sunshine per year.


Surface Cooling

Surface cooling and heating is a generic term for various heating and cooling options, which emit or absorb heat via the surfaces of the construction elements of a building. The used systems are divided into meander-shaped systems, e.g. from copper meander or plastic meander and capillary tube systems made up of capillary tube mats.


Surface Heating

Surface heating / cooling is a generic term for various heating and cooling options, which emit or absorb heat via the surfaces of the construction elements of a building. The aquiferous surface heatings are divided into meander-shaped surface heating and capillary tube heating with capillary tube mats as the heat-dissipating heating element.


Suspended Ceiling

A suspended ceiling is the structural form of the ceiling heating and cooling and / or the cooling ceiling. The cooling or heating ceiling is suspended from the ceiling in free planning.


Switching Valve

A switching valve is used to switch, manually or motor-driven, the flow direction between 2 or 3 different directions within the tube system of a plant.


System Temperature

The target or actual temperature in hydraulic systems is called system temperature.


Thermal Construction Element Activation

Thermal construction element activation (or: concrete core activation) is a term used in the air conditioning technology and describes systems, which use building masses for temperature regulation. These systems are used for the exclusive or additional heating or cooling of rooms. In most cases the activated surface is the ceiling.


Thermal Energy

Thermal energy is the energy that is accumulated in the unsystematic movement of atoms or molecules of a substance. It is a state variable. Thermal energy is measured in joule in the International System of Units.


Thermal Solar Plant

Solar plants, that transform solar radiation into heat in order to utilize it, are called thermal solar plants.



Thermodynamics is a branch of classic physics. It is the science of energy, its form of appearance and its ability to perform work. It is based on four main theorems.



A thermometer is a measurement device to determine the temperature.



Temperature is a physical dimension that plays an important role in the thermodynamics. It is measured in Kelvin (K). In Germany, Austria and Switzerland the measuring unit Celsius (°C) is also valid.


Temperature Measuring Head

A temperature measuring head is used to determine the temperatures of liquid, solid or gaseous media.


Tender Texts

A tender text is the text version for the detailed description of an offer’s scope of delivery and services.



Transmittance is a physical dimension for the permeability of a medium concerning waves as for instance sound waves or electromagnetic waves (light etc.). If a wave, that moves in the medium A (e.g. air), encounters a medium B of finite thickness (e.g. a lens or a wall), it is reflected on the boundary surfaces and completely or partly absorbed when passing through depending on the material properties of the barrier. The remaining part is transmitted through medium B and exits on the opposite side of medium B.


Transmittance Losses

Transmittance loss or transmittance heat loss in buildings is the heat quantity, which a building emits into its ambience via its heat-transmitting surrounding surfaces (enveloping surface) if there is a temperature difference between inside and outside and in case each part of the enveloping surface is hermetically sealed (windproof).


Underfloor Heating

Besides wall and ceiling heating, underfloor heating also belongs to the surface heatings. Thereby, heat is predominantly emitted as radiant heat. Aquiferous underfloor heatings became accepted in the 1980s as a one-tube-system, called thick tube meander. The introduction of the capillary tube underfloor heating represents a technology leap. This leads to an improvement / reduction of the specific system temperature and/or higher capacity output compared to meander underfloor heatings, as well as to a reduction of the installation height and an even heat dissipation on the floor surface. The integration of construction elements can be done wet or dry: wet in screed or concrete core or above the load distribution layer in a cement or plastic grouting component, or dry below the load distribution layer. 



The heat transfer coefficient U (also thermal insulation value, U-value, formerly k-value) is a unit for the passage of heat flow through a one or multi-layer material layer, if on both sides different temperatures exist. It indicates the power (the energy quantity per time unit), which flows through a surface of 1 m², if the air temperatures that are present on both sides differ stationarily by 1 K. The measurement unit in the International System of Units (SI) is W/(m²·K) (watt per square meter and Kelvin).


Wall Construction

The wall construction is the exact definition of the different layers of a wall concerning the applied materials, their thickness and order as well as their connection with each other.


Wall Heating

The wall heating belongs to the surface heatings and serves to heat a room through heat dissipation of the walls with a relatively high proportion of radiation.


Water-to-Water Heat Pump

A water-to-water heat pump is a heat pump which obtains source energy from well or surface water.



The watt is the unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after James Watt. Its symbol is the capital letter “W”. 

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